School disruptions have had a pronounced impact on children’s learning. Most — but, importantly, not all — children fell behind. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic caused most children to experience school disruptions, stress, and isolation that will have an impact on overall well-being and academic performance. Generally, marginalized populations were most negatively affected. Research estimates that average, cumulative instructional loss was five to nine months by the end of the 2020–2021 school year. For students of color, that figure could be as high as 12 months.